Apple is a rosaceous fruit tree, belonging to genus Malus. Conventional propagation methods in apple include grafting, cutting, budding and stooling. But all of these methods have limitations for less success rate. Also the quality of planting material produced through these techniques is not very good. Apple is infected by number of viruses like Apple Mosaic Virus, Apple Chlorotic Leaf Viris, Apple Stem Pitting Virus & Apple Stem Growing Virus. These viruses are not eradicated through conventional methods of propagation and get transmitted from rootstocks to scion. Hence we need to have the method which can give us large quantity of planting material and also ensures virus elimination. Tissue culture is the only technology with which we can get large quantity and high quality planting material in apple. In the present scenario, where the growers face the problem of shortage of disease-free quality planting materials, the in vitro propagation is a potential means to tackle this problem. In addition, expanding the existing genetic resources in fruit crops through genetic manipulation would add genetically improved elite clones for use in micropropagation. Further, the conservation
Development of a successful technique for apple micropropagation is very important to produce healthy, disease free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. This progress is dependent on several factors such as applied technique, plant material preparation and medium composition, especially, plant growth regulators. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal (physiological state, genotype), and external (medium composition, technique, in vitro conditions) factors. Different stages of apple micropropagation such as shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization were strongly dependent upon medium composition. In this book, mainly impact of medium composition (plant growth regulators, mineral nutrients, organic and gelling agents) on growth asects such as: multiplication rate, shoot elongation, bud formation, leaf development, callusing and rooting of different apple genotypes cultured on gelled basal Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium are discussed in details.